Abu Bakr Caliph was born two and a half year after the elephant year and fifty and half year before the commencement of Hijrah. The Holy Prophet had born after the two years and two month the birth of Abu Bakr.
The people of the Makkah knew him by the name of “Abdul Kaab” in pre-islamic days. When Abu Bakr embraced Islam, He got the name “Abdullah”. The Holy Prophet gave him title of “Siddique” later on.
He belonged to the Quraishite clan of Bani Taim. And his geneology joins with that of the Holy Prophet in the 7th generation. His geneology is as follows.
Abdullah bin Abi Qahafah usman bin Aamir bin Umro bin Kaab bin Saad taim bin Marrah bin Kaab bin Lavi bin Ghalib alqureshi altaimi.
Abu Bakr Calpih joins the geneology of the Holy Prophet in Marrah bin Kaab. His mother was daughter of His paternal uncle.
Ateeq: Hazrat Abu bakr had the title of Ateeq (free from Hell-fire). Allah’s Messenger said, “Anyone who wishes to see the man free from Hell fire should look Abu Bakr.”
Hazrat Abu Bakr had white color, slim body with a large belly. His face was not enough flesh. He had vast forehead.
Hazrat Abu Bakr never tasted even one drop of wine before and after he embraced Islam.
The Quraish used to trade in different countries. Therefore, Abu bakr also would undertake commercial trips to various places. When the Holy Prophet Muhammad claimed prophet hood, Abu bakr had gone to Yemen for business.
Upon his arrival, Abu Bakr Caliph found that the leaders of the Quraish including Abu Jahl, Ataba and Shoba ridiculed the declaration of Prophet hood by Muhammad (PBUH). However, he got very excited and hurried to the Holy Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). He embraced Islam there at that time.
According to Suyuti, the author of “Tarikh ul Khulfa”, narrates thus.
How did Abu Bakr Caliph embrace Islam?
The Holy Prophet said, “Whenever I offered Islam to any person, he showed some hesitation before embracing it. But Abu Bakr is an exception as he embraced Islam without the slightest hesitation on his part.”
Hence, historians have mentioned different narrations about Abu bakr embracing Islam. One of the narrations speaks that Abu bakr saw a dream. He saw the Moon from sky fell on to the Holy Kaaba and shattered into pieces. These pieces joined back again. Abu bakr embrace the joined piece or one of the piece stayed his house door.
Abu Bakr Caliph asked the meaning of this dream to one of the Jewish scholar. The Jewish scholar said the dream is difficult to interpret.
Another tradition relates that on a journey to Yemen, one of the scholars asked the three signs in Abu bakr. One is his age; second his color and third one about the black mark on his belly. Abu bakr replied that he would not show his belly unless he knew about the matter.
The scholar replied that he knew that the person like you would be the companion of the last messenger. You belong to Makkah and an arab. The Prophet would also be of the same geneology.
So, when Abu Bakr came back to Makkah. He asked the Holy Prophet about the signs. The Holy Prophet told him the signs you came to know from the Old scholar. And he embraced Islam.
Abu Bakr elected as first Caliph of Islam
When the Holy Prophet died, the People scrambled to offer ‘bait’ at the hands of Abu Bakr. Since, he became Caliph. He delivered memorable speech.
“Brothers, now I ama elected your Amir, although I am no better than anyone among you. Help me if I am in the right and set me right if I am in the wrong. Truth is a trust: false hood is treason. The weak among you shall be strong with me till (God willing) his right has been vindicated and the strong among you shall be weak with me till (if Lord will) I have taken what is due from him. Obey me as long as I obey Allah and His Prophet. If I disobey Him and His Prophet, obey me not.”
Abu Bakr Caliph led the prayers for seventeen (17) times during the lifetime of the Holy Prophet (PBUH). Because the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was so weak that he could not lead prayers. Therefore, he ordered Abu Bakr to lead the prayer congregation in Mosque during the last days of the Holy Prophet (PBUH).
He appointed Hazrat Umar as his Grand Qazi, but the people had grown much honest and purged. Therefore, Hazrat Umar did not receive even one complaint for one year. Hazrat Ali, Hazrat Usman and Zaid bin Sabit worked as Khatibs.
The battle of Yarmook started in the reign of Hazrat Abu Bakr and won in the reign of Hazrat Umar.
Abu Bakr continued his ancestral occupation for six months after he became Caliph. He carried his cloth sheets on his shoulders for selling in the markets of Madina. Given his responsibilities, the assembly of the Muslims fixed a monthly stipend for Abu Bakr from Bait ul Maal (Public Treasury).
Abu Bakr used to milk goat of his locality before he became Caliph. However, he continued milking goats. As one day he heard a girl’s remark, “Now he has become the Caliph, hence he would not milk our goats.”
He replied instantly, “No, my daughter, I shall certainly milk the goats as usual.”
Abu Bakr loved the children very much. Therefore, they call him “BABA” (father).
Abu Bakr was a Democratic leader
Once, a prince from Yemen came and saw Abu Bakr. The prince got surprised to see that the Caliph was wearing only two brown shawls around him. So, the prince decided to leave the levish style of living.
Abu Bakr Caliph set such form of democracy where anyone could reach the Caliph directly. He used to visit the Madina streets by himself. Hence, he knew the people himself. He never asked anyone to pick the reign of a camel if dropped.
Once his wife asked him to bring some sweets. He replied that he did not have enough money. His wife gave him money. She had saved from the money of Bait ul Maal stipend. Abu Bakr asked to lessen the amount of stipend thereafter.
Abu Bakr advised to take back 6000 dirham (currency unit). He received this money from Bait ul Mal (Public Treasury) as stipend. When he was about to die, he advised to sell his plot and deposit the money back.
When Abu Bakr embrace Islam, he has 40, 000 dirhams but he died a pauper. All of his money served in the way of Allah.
Allah’s messenger made him Ameer e Hajj in 9 hijrah.
In Madina, the Holy Prophet made Abu Bakr brother to Khaarjah bin Zaid abi Zaheer. Hazrat Abu bakr announced it first that no Non-Muslim and anyone else should pilgrimage of Macca in nude.
Abu Bakr Caliph died on August 23, 634 A.C. at the age of 63 and his Caliphate lasted for two years, three months and eleven days. He was buried by the side of the Prophet.